|日期：2011-07-01 來源：武網 作者：武網|
Introduction to Chinese Wushu Duanwei Technical System
The Chinese Wushu Duanwei System is a hierarchical system which the Chinese Wushu Association formulated to evaluate the professional level of wushu players and learners. Based on this system, the Textbook Series of Chinese Wushu Duanwei System (hereafter referred to as the Textbook Series) has been compiled to improve and perfect the evaluation targets and level standards of the Duanwei System. In order to promote the popularization of Wushu and develop different schools, the Association has made every effort to establish a standard Duanwei technical system, which will guide wushu learners to master wushu and its empty hand and weapon techniques following gradual improvement and promotion through Duan levels.
The evaluation targets of the Chinese Wushu Duanwei System embrace wushu ethics and etiquette, theories, techniques and skills. The evaluation targets for applicants for high Duanwei levels include their achievements in wushu theories and their contributions to the development of wushu. Therefore, the Textbook Series consists of the following course books：3 theory textbooks including Wushu Ethics and Etiquette, The History of Chinese Wushu and Introduction to Chinese Wushu; Chinese Wushu Duanwei System Examination: Problems and Solutions; 17 textbooks embracing 12 styles including Changquan, Shaolinquan, Taijiquan(Chen-style,Yang-style,Wu-style,Wuu-style,Sun-style,He-style), Xingyiquan, Baguazhang, Tongbiquan, Chuojiao, Fanziquan, Bajiquan, Tanglangquan, Wuzuquan, Yongchunquan, Wushu for Fun (pre-duan Textbook), Wushu Gongfa, Wushu Self -defense and three weapon courses including Jianshu, Duangun, Erjiegun.
According to the Chinese Wushu Duanwei System, the professional levels of players can be graded from low to high levels as follows: primary Duan (levels 1~3), middle Duan (4th~6th Duan) and advanced Duan (7th~9th Duan). There is also a pre-duan System which has three levels. The Duan level should follow a corresponding standard, therefore, formulating a unified evaluating standard and distinguishing standards for different levels is the focal points of the Textbook Series. When formulating the unified technical standard, we establish the traditional practice form for singe practice, dual combat and real-world application, as the structure of the technical content. Each level has its own form. Each form can be used firstly as solo practice, next as choreographed fighting with a partner, and finally each move in the form can be studied for its real-world martial application. This progression follows the methods of traditional wushu training which combines practice and fighting. It embodies the essence of wushu. The practitioner can master the techniques and understand their meaning.
In order to clarify the differences between Duan levels, the Textbook Series standardizes the levels in respect to the technical elements, total number of movements and degree of difficulty, always following the principle of gradual and systematic study.
First, the standard at each level increases by the addition of more technical elements. Five technical elements including “punch, kick, grasp, position,wrestle” are embodied in all schools of styles and weapons. The Textbook Series defines the technical content of the first five Duan levels by increasing technical element level by level. The technical content of the 6th Duan is a comprehensive application of the five technical elements mentioned above. For example, “punch” is the only technique of attack and defense in the 1st Duan; in the 2nd Duan, “kick” is added. The rest may be deduced by analogy as follows:
Secondly, the total number of movements increases at each level. This is done to complement the increased number of techniques being added.
Thirdly, the degree of difficulty of the movements is steadily increased. For instance, “punch” is the simplest and most widely used technical element in Wushu. It is a common technical element in all six Duans. However, the manifestations of “punch” includes the straight punch, cutting strike, push, upward cut, upward push, and downward swing punch in four directions. We grade these movements from simple to complicated and divide them into six levels. In this way different degrees of difficulty are added to each movement as the level increases.
The technical content of Wushu for Fun(pre-Duan Textbook), Wushu Gongfa and Wushu Self-defense are also compiled in accordance with the above principles, which ensures a unity of style and a consistency between different styles and texbooks of the same Duan level.
The Duan level standards are set according to the principle of gradually increasing the technical elements and the total number and difficulty of the movements level by level. This means that learners can easily distinguish the difference between each Duan level, and after being promoted to a higher Duan level, the players can master the technical system of the styles learned. In addition, because the Tutorial Series is compiled with this unified style, regardless of what styles one is learning, the learning progress is the same, which means that after a learner reaches a certain Duan level of one style, he can transfer to another style for a higher level.
The standardization of the evaluation targets of the Chinese Wushu Duanwei System lays the foundation for a smooth implementation of its standardized exam, and also contributes to the development of wushu and its spread at home and abroad. In addition, standardization is a basis for diversification. In the 1950s the 24 Simplified Taiqiquan was compiled by the Chinese Wushu Association and started the all-around development of Taijiquan in its different styles. This is a prominent example showing that standardization could lead to the flourishing of all schools of wushu.
本系列教程是根據2007年10月召開的“全國武術段位制工作會議”關於“段位評定從套段轉入考段”的會議決議啟動編寫的。 2008年，國家體育總局武術研究院相繼聘請了一百多位有代表性的民間武術傳人和專家、學者，啟動了段位考評內容的創編和配套教程的編寫工作。 2008年7月，本系列教程通過中國武術協會的審定。評審委員會認為：“《中國武術段位制系列教程》編寫目的明確，體例得當，體現了傳統性和時代性，段級標準與技術難度適宜，技術規範，拳種和器械風格突出，是一部學術性、代表性、可行性都值得肯定的作品，達到了發布實施的標準。”隨後，編寫人員又按照內容符合體例、圖解符合規範的要求進行加工，再經專家審稿、出版編輯的加工才正式攝製教學片、拍攝技術圖片、合成書稿。應該說，這套集眾多傳人和專家、學者的學識和智慧創編而成的系列教程，是一部將《中國武術段位制》的實施與繼承、傳播武術融為一體的精心之作。當然，對於這項嶄新的系統工程而言，由於組織者、參編者業務水平的局限，不當之處在所難免，敬請讀者指正。
The compiling of the series of this course is based on the resolutions made at the National Wushu Duanwei Work Conference in October 2007, which was chiefly concerned with the shifting of Duan evaluation to a more graded testing system. In 2008, the Wushu Research Institute of the General Administration of Sport of China employed a succession of more than 100 representatives of folk Wushu, experts and scholars and launched the evaluation of the Duanwei System and the compiling of the corresponding courses. In July, 2008, the courses were examined by the Chinese Wushu Association, whose assessment committee validated it to be academic, representative and feasible. It met the standards of promulgation as it was equipped with specific targets and proper style, reflecting the tradition and proper Duan standards, technical difficulty, standard specification as well as prominent styles and weapons. It was processed by the compilers on the basis that the content should agree with the style while the diagrams should meet the specified standards. After being drafted by the experts and processed by publishing editors, the teaching films were formally produced, the technical pictures shot, and the manuscripts published. This series of courses was composed by adopting the knowledge and wisdom of a great number of experts and scholars, and is a masterpiece which combines the implementation and inheritance of Chinese Wushu Duanwei System with the spreading of Wushu. As far as this brand-new project is concerned, we apologise for any inevitable mistakes that may have appeared due to our own lack of expertise. Criticism from the readers is welcomed.
This Baguazhang is the one of the series. Sincere support has been obtained from Gao Jiwu, Guo Zhenya, Wang Shangzhu, Ren Wenzhu, Wen Dasheng. We extend our thanks to them.
Wushu Research Institute
of the General Administration of Sport of China